Folk pedagogy about self-education: Do not be lazy to get up early and know more when you are young.
2. Organic combination of tasks solved by the school with the needs of the environment. This is primarily the organization of assistance to students in the protection and increase of natural resources, in solving problems of production, the orientation of students to choose a profession needed for their city or village.
3. Creating a moral and psychological climate of respect for knowledge at school. The school should promote among students the idea that in a civilized society it is beneficial for a person to narrative essay topics for grade 9 be brought up and educated. Society also needs it. It is necessary to overcome the temporary phenomenon of disrespect for upbringing and education, which, unfortunately, still exists.
4. Selection of the rational content of education in accordance with its purpose and level of education of the team and individual students. The school must feel which direction of the content of education should be strengthened at a certain stage of educational work. At the beginning of the XX century. in Ukraine, the issues of moral and legal education, preparation of student youth for life and activity in market conditions, education of intolerance to negative phenomena of life, etc. need such strengthening.
5. A reasonable relationship between information methods of influencing students and involving them in various activities. This is due to the fact that the school is dominated by verbal methods of education, which allow to form the views and beliefs of students, but do not ensure the development of appropriate skills and behavioral habits. This explains the gap between the consciousness and behavior of some students. Involving students in a variety of activities helps to bridge this gap.
6. Timely educational activities, focusing on the prevention of negative phenomena in the student environment. Often some educational activities are held only after an unpleasant accident at school. But the thing is that education should be preventive, to prevent negative phenomena, and not to expect them, in order to eliminate their causes.
7. The use of various forms and methods of educational influence that correspond to the age of students. It is advisable to choose those that encourage students to show activity, initiative and independence, in the preparation and conduct of which they would take an active part;
8. Increasing the emotionality of educational activities. This requirement is based on the following provisions:
the statement of psychologists that knowledge is acquired faster and becomes views and beliefs, provided that the student is not indifferent to them, that he emotionally experiences, learning them; one of the features of the Ukrainian mentality is emotionality.
9. Creating conditions for the development of independence and initiative of students, their self-government, self-education and self-education.
10. Overcoming the authoritarian style in the attitude of teachers to students. Preparing students for life in a democratic society requires abandoning the team style in relation to them. The school should be a model of democratization of Ukrainian society, and students should gain sufficient experience of relations on democratic principles during their stay in it.
In addition to the above, the school should pay special attention to overcoming the “ugly consequences of the Bolshevik regime: atheism, the habit of tolerating national humiliation, contempt for one’s own culture and language, and slander, theft, alcoholism, bribery, apathy and indifference, mutual suspicion. uncontrollability of sexual urges … We must step here first of all on the moral front – by our own example, purity of thought and honesty of deeds. The first ally of a pet in this area is the family. “
Folk pedagogy on the criteria of education:
Appreciate a person for his actions. Look at the tree as it bears, and at the man as it does; Speak along, and live across.
Folk pedagogy of self-education:
Do not be lazy to get up early and know more when you are young. Until you resist, you will not be able to. Ask people, and have your mind. Who gets up early, so God gives.
Specifics and components of education. Abstract
The process of education is characterized by a variety of tasks and areas, systematically replenished with new ones, arising from the dynamics of socio-economic life. Its effectiveness largely depends on the extent to which education is able to anticipate the need to solve specific educational problems.
The tasks of education at school are realized in the learning process and in special educational work with students in extracurricular activities at school and abroad.
The process of education – a system of educational activities aimed at forming a comprehensive and harmoniously developed personality.
It has its own specifics, first of all purposeful character. The presence of a specific goal makes it systematic and consistent, does not allow randomness, episodic and chaotic in the conduct of educational activities. A special role in the formation of the human personality belongs to school education, as purposeful educational influence on it involves not only the education of positive qualities, but also overcoming the consequences of the influence of negative objective factors.
The process of education depends on objective and subjective factors.
Objective factors are:
features of development of Ukraine in general and system of educational institutions in particular; restructuring of the economy on a market basis; features of social sphere development; revival of national traditions, customs, rites, folk pedagogy; expanding the scope of communication with foreign citizens; the impact of the natural environment.
Subjective factors include:
socio-pedagogical activities of families and public organizations; educational activities of educational institutions in the person of their employees; purposeful activity of mass media; activities of cultural institutions; educational activities of out-of-school institutions and church activities.
“Educates,” wrote A. Makarenko, “everything: people, things, phenomena, but first and foremost – people. Of these, parents and teachers are in the first place. With the whole complex world of the surrounding reality, the child enters into countless relationships, each of which inevitably develops, intertwines with other relationships, complicated by the physical and moral growth of the child.
All this “chaos” does not seem to be subject to any accounting, but it creates at any given moment a change in the child’s personality. It is the educator’s task to direct and manage this development. “
The effectiveness of the educational process largely depends on the coincidence of the effects of organized educational activities and objective conditions. The results of this process do not occur immediately after the application of educational influence, they are somewhat distant in time. The educational process is two-way, ie it requires the participation and interaction of teacher-educator and pupil.
Restructuring of the educational process on a democratic basis involves the creation of conditions for cooperation between teachers and students, in which the latter would act as subjects of their own education.
In the process of education, the inner world of the child is formed, which is very difficult to penetrate. We need techniques that would allow us to express the views, beliefs and feelings of each pupil, to enrich the inner world of each individual and make certain adjustments.
The process of education is characterized by a variety of tasks and areas, systematically replenished with new ones, arising from the dynamics of socio-economic life. Its effectiveness largely depends on the extent to which education is able to anticipate the need to solve specific educational problems. This process is continuous, there can be no vacation.
Free time from study should be filled with useful things that contribute to the formation of positive personality traits. This is especially true of educational work with pedagogically neglected students, juvenile offenders. Education is a long process. A person is brought up from childhood to adulthood. “I continue to study,” wrote K.-A. Helvetius – my upbringing is not yet complete. When will it end? When I am no longer capable of it: after my death. My whole life is, in fact, a long-term upbringing. “
The process of education consists of the purpose and objectives, content and methods of organization of educational influence, as well as its result and correction. Regarding the formation of personality, the structure of the process of education has the following components: personality consciousness, emotional and sensory sphere, skills and habits of behavior. The leading role is played by the development of her consciousness.
Consciousness – a human function of the brain, which is to reflect the objective properties of objects and phenomena of the world, the processes occurring in it, their actions, in their preliminary mental drawing and prediction of consequences, in regulating human relations with man and social reality.
The structural elements of consciousness are feelings, thinking, emotions, will, self-awareness. Consciousness plays a leading role in human activity and behavior. Through consciousness, students in the process of learning and education acquire knowledge, skills and abilities, learn the experience of behavior, their consciousness is manifested in relation to learning and other activities, to people and society in general, to themselves, learning and other responsibilities …
No less important in the formation of personality and feelings, which manifests a person’s attitude to the surrounding reality and to himself.
Feelings – mental states and processes that reflect the emotional side of the spiritual world of man, his subjective experience of events and emotional attitude to the world.
Education of consciousness and emotional sphere should be combined with the formation of skills and habits of behavior.
A skill is a mental neoplasm, thanks to which an individual is able to perform a certain action, rationally, with proper accuracy and speed, without unnecessary expenditure of physical and neuropsychological energy.
Habit – a person’s tendency to relatively established methods of action.
“A good habit is moral capital,” wrote K. Ushinsky. – The capital of the habit of use grows and gives man the opportunity, as material capital in the economic world, to use more and more fruitfully his most precious force – the power of conscious will and to raise the moral structure of his life higher and higher, without starting each time their will to fight the difficulties that have already been overcome. “
Skills and habits of behavior are formed in the process of purposeful, systematic activity of students, in which they gain the necessary experience of behavior.